Thursday, July 9, 2020

Essay Topics - What Essay Topics For College Should I Choose?

Essay Topics - What Essay Topics For College Should I Choose?Is it possible to earn high grades by choosing the most popular essay topics for college? It is, provided you do not overlook the importance of the grammar and language skills that are required. However, if you learn to master these basics first, you may use other important essay topics that are more challenging for you. Here are some of the more popular topics for college that can help you with your academic and career goals.An important essay topic for college that a lot of students have trouble with is how the English courses they took prepare them for jobs. The purpose of an English course is to give students exposure to different ways of writing and speaking and to develop critical thinking skills. However, most students who fail to understand this major function of the courses often fail to grasp the importance of good writing and speaking style. One of the reasons for this is that English courses are not designed for teaching grammar and language skills. Instead, the aim of the course is to encourage students to learn what a writer or speaker should be thinking when they make certain choices in the language.An important essay topic for college that students are aware of is the fact that English is one of the most important languages in the world. In addition, because of its importance, English has been invaded by many dialects throughout the centuries. Some people consider English as their first or second language. Because of this, people who do not speak English very well usually find it difficult to develop good communication skills in the language. Luckily, most English courses take a few weeks to allow students to improve their fluency in the language.A very popular essay topic for college is exploring the importance of grammar and language skills in the writing process. However, the writing process does not always require the same skills, since grammar and language are important for other parts of the essay. For example, a quick survey of the news would reveal that many pundits use social networking websites to publishnews. They post comments, submit articles, and even receive emails.Many students who do not learn to use proper grammar and language often confuse the two. As a result, a lot of students fail to distinguish between a true opinion and a quotation from a source. Without proper grammar and language skills, a student can easily confuse such things as 'fault' with 'issue' and make errors in the composition of opinions and newspaper articles.Another of the most important essay topics for college is the question of why it is important to learn to write essays. This question is especially important to students who take college-level English courses, since they are hoping to gain employment after graduation. Many employers today base their hiring decisions on students' written communication skills. Even though a writing degree will certainly help a student's res ume stand out in a crowd, there are so many other benefits to earning an English degree that it is hard to imagine not knowing how to write.If you want to earn high grades by choosing the most popular essay topics for college, consider the above two topics. Remember that English is one of the most important languages in the world, and that it plays a role in everyone's everyday life. Good writing and grammar skills go hand in hand with a healthy sense of self-confidence and a lively personality.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Was the American Revolution Inevitable Essay examples

Even with both the English and the Americans willing to compromise and make deals, it would have been very hard to prevent the War for independence. The American enlightenment, however, could have been stopped. A large majority of Americans wanted independence from England mainly because of the way they were being ruled. Of the Americans that wanted to break away were from many backgrounds, they came from all over the social ladder and from all over the world. If they didn’t all come together to be equal around each other then the War for Independence still would have happened, but the success and growth during and after the war would have never happened. It was never a sure thing whether or not the people would come together to move the†¦show more content†¦The Stamp Act further increased the duties on almost any printed material. The amount of mass defiance and rioting, especially in the major cities, that followed shocked the British government, they have never see n this amount or scale of discontent before with their subjects in America. As time went on, so did the riots, mostly in New York, Boston, and Newport, Rhode Island. Finally in March 1766, after a long debate, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act only to pass the Declaration Act, which stated that Parliament could enact laws for the colonies in all cases. Only now most Americans began to realize the power parliament had over controlling their basic rights. England further angered the colonists in June of 1772, when they announced that instead of having a legislature put into place by them, England would pay the governors and judges. Even though it would save the colonists money, they had the mindset of if the judges were paid by England, then they would obey them and what they said. In response, Boston created a Committee of Correspondence to win the sympathy of other colonies, by the end of 1773, all but 3 colonies had Committees of Correspondence. The final step before revolution sta rted was taken in 1773 when the Parliament passed the Tea Act, which allowed the East India Company to ship tea directly to North America with a tax to the colonists, but the merchants who competed with the company announced this asShow MoreRelatedWhy Did Jefferson Argue That Religious Freedom Is Needed?893 Words   |  4 PagesReligious Freedom is an announcement composed by Thomas Jefferson and went by the Virginia General Assembly on January 16, 1786. Jefferson believed in religious freedom and exerted himself to separate state and church. He argued that religious freedom was more than needed in America, a nation of immigrants. Thomas Jefferson succeeded in overcoming problems like religious discrimination. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom is a result of Thomas Jefferson’s believes about religious freedom. In hisRead MoreThe American Revolution : Thomas Paine Essay1378 Words   |  6 PagesOctober 2015 The American Revolution Thomas Paine once said, Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, tis time to part. (Paine, Thomas.) This is a quote from Thomas Paine s Common Sense, a fifty page pamphlet written by Thomas Paine about political independence and how the American colonies didn’t need Britain. Thomas Paine is saying that America was experiencing resentment towards British rule and was ready to becomeRead MoreAmerica s Founding Of The United States Of America933 Words   |  4 PagesThe often told story of America’s founding begins the Founding fathers waged a revolution and created a unique place called the United States of America. This story may include the early Jamestown colony and puritan colonists, and at times deal with the depollution and dispossession of the America’s native inhabitants. However frequently the complex nature of America’s prerevolutionary era is left out. Daniel Richter offers a refreshing non-teleological revision by showing that the United StatesRead MoreWas The American Civil War An Inevitable?1390 Words   |  6 PagesSabrina Scovino Was the American Civil War an inevitable consequence of the American Revolution? The American Revolution marked significant changes in the political, social, and economic status of the Americans. For a long, time the lives of the Americans were darkened by the British colonial rule. The British government passed several intolerable Acts. For instance, the Massachusetts Government Act was a restriction to town meetings. As a result, the American opponents began collective actionsRead MoreThe American Revolution And The Civil War1567 Words   |  7 Pagesthe eyes of most, the American Revolution was a momentous event that shaped not only what would now be the America we know today but the whole world as well. However, this event had ramifications that affected the history of America for many years to come. In fact, many of those same ramifications led to what we know as the American Civil War. While it may be difficult to distinguish whether or not the Civil War was an inevitable consequence of the American Revolution due to lack of correlatingRead MoreFrench Revolution: the Solution to Class Inequality1141 Words   |  5 PagesThe French Revolution was one of the most important events that occurred in the history of France. The revolution crumpled the Old Regime and completely transformed the social and political system of France. The people of France sought to establish a more egalitarian society through their newly created Republic. When Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu introduced individual liberty, natural rights and equality the ideas of revolution emerged. AsRead MoreThe Causes of the American Revolution Essay845 Words   |  4 PagesWar, Britain still retained a full dominance over the American colonies. However, they now saw the colonies as fodder to feed the raging debts of Britain. The crowns desire for money to pay the debts was viewed by Britain as reasonable, while it fueled the fire known as revolution t hat was stirring up in the hearts of the colonists. This would create a new sense of American political identity and would eventually lead to the American Revolution. Eventually, Britain would soon come to regret markingRead MoreSlavery as the Cause of the American Civil War Essay1733 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Civil War was the bloodiest military conflict in American history leaving over 500 thousand dead and over 300 thousand wounded (Roark 543-543). One might ask, what caused such internal tension within the most powerful nation in the world? During the nineteenth century, America was an infant nation, but toppling the entire world with its social, political, and economic innovations. In addition, immigrants were migrating from their native land to live the American dream (Roark 405-407)Read More Resopnse To Revolution Essay1155 Words   |  5 PagesReview Response to Revolution Response to Revolution, by Richard E. Welch Jr., is an honest and unbiased look at America’s policy towards Cuba during the Cuban Revolution. It covers the general history of and preconceived notions about the revolution in depth and gives ample attention to both sides of the relationship between the U.S. and Cuba. In addition to this Welch analyzes the reactions of America’s various factions during the early years of the revolution. Upon taking this into aRead MoreComparing and Contrasting the American and French Revolutions805 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Revolution began for two reasons: political and economic, while the French Revolution began with domination and mismanagement that contributed to the French society. During the Revolution many events occurred having a major effect, such as the sugar act, currency act, and the Townshend act. The French began the Tennis Court Oath, the Storming of the Bastille, and the overthrown of Monarchy. The French Revolutio n followed in suit with the American Revolution, because the French were in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A New Dystopia By George Orwell - 1372 Words

A New Dystopia Who will reign supreme; Aldous Huxley or George Orwell? Ever since these two authors released their dystopian novels over 50 years ago, both authors and avid fans have argued as to which dystopia will take over our society. Will it be the brute force, boot and gun approach of Orwell s dystopia or the all-loving, drug-accepting society that Huxley illustrates? If you take a closer look, a mix of both dystopias is quite apparent in our society today; we are living in our own modern, advanced and constantly developing dystopia. The topics discussed in these two novels cover a variety of subjects, sex, drugs, freedom, religion and beliefs, and life in general. Both have their own idea of what outcome these topics will take in their most dire form. In this paper I will be comparing and contrasting their differences and then comparing them to our world today in an effort to see which direction our society is headed. The topic of sex in these two novels is depicted in very different ways. In 1984, sex and intimate relationships are taboo. Big Brother thinks that a relationship with intimacy between two individuals may cause them to unite together and could possible lead to the questioning of Big Brother, which is unacceptable and potentially dangerous. On the opposite side of the spectrum, in Brave New World, everyone is expected to engage with as many partners as possible. Also, that engaging with only one partner a number of times is suspicious. In fact if you donShow MoreRelated1984 Dystopia Analysis1539 Words   |  7 Pagessomething great could be another worst nightmare. In some cases people mistake utopias for dystopias. A utopia is an ideal place of state or living (â€Å"Utopia†). A dystopia is a society of characterized by human misery, a squalor, oppression, disease, or overcrowding (â€Å"Dystopia†). In George Orwell’s book 1984 the society is depicted as a utopi a when in reality it’s not the perfect place, it’s written to represent a dystopia. It takes place in 1984 in a dystopian America where it’s actually called â€Å"Ocieana†Read MoreUtopia As A Dystopia1190 Words   |  5 Pagesthe woods, smiling and thinking about going home to her family bearing good news of a family trip across the world. Everybody wishes to live in a utopian world, but it isn’t always what people think. A utopia is described as â€Å"an imaginary and indefinitely remote place; a place of ideal perfection especially in laws, government, and social conditions; an impractical scheme for social improvement† (â€Å"Utopia†). However, a dystopia is described as â€Å"an imagined state or place in which everything is unpleasantRead More1984 Argument1249 Words   |  5 PagesGeorge Orwell’s book 1984 is a very interesting novel. The novel is set up in Airstrip One. In George Orwell’s book 1984 it has many s ituations. One of the many situations are that some people refer society as â€Å"Orwellian.† What does Orwellian mean? Orwellian means, of or related to the works of George Orwell ( especially his picture of his future totalitarian state.) People believe that Orwell is realistic and say his work part of our society now. George Orwell was a writer in the twentieth centuryRead MoreLiterary Context Of Dystopian Literature1746 Words   |  7 Pagesfear. However, not everyone might have the same belief of a dystopian society, such is namely seen in Brave New World where people’s opinions between a dystopia and a utopia differ. One person’s utopia could be another person’s dystopia. Originating from the Greek prefix ou and suffix topos; the genre of dystopia can be translated into bad place however, it is more commonly known as dystopia or just simply anti-utopia. It is a fairly modern genre and is used by authors to criticize the many problemsRead MoreBrave New World - Dystopia Essay1460 Words   |  6 Pagesover the last century; each ranging from one extreme society to the next. A dystopia, â€Å"A futuristic, imagined universe in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are maintained through corporate, bureaucratic, technological, moral, or totalitarian control,†[1] through an exaggerated worst-case scenario, criticizes about current trends, societal norms, or political systems. The society in Brave New World by Aldous Huxley is divided in a caste system, in which humans areRead MoreA Utopia By George Orwell1477 Words   |  6 Pagessociety that americans live in now demonstrate a utopia, therefore, they also demonstr ate a dystopia. A utopia is a perfect world in which there are no problems like war, disease, poverty, oppression, discrimination, inequality, and more universal problems existing. A dystopia is a world in which nothing is perfect. Problems are extreme things are dysfunctional and problematic. A utopia does not turn into a dystopia until the people living in that society do not live authentic lives. Until they becomeRead MoreThe Masses And The Dystopian Novel Elysium Essay1557 Words   |  7 PagesThe connection between these texts is they all feature compliancy of the masses, and all feature in some form of dystopian worlds. The texts all feature varying forms of dystopia, Bioshock features a dystopia brought on by evolutionary war, whereas brave new world features a world where the state has unlimited control over the technology and the people that rely on it. Paragraph 1 In Elysium, the film has an imaginary space station called â€Å"Elysium† this station hold only the most elite people, everybodyRead MoreUtopia And Dystopia By Thomas More1472 Words   |  6 Pages Utopia and dystopia are two main narrative platforms that have been employed as vehicles for demonstrating social fabric of the society. They are constituents of speculative fiction which allows historians to evade some contentious facts of the past in order to create a new world. Notably, these terminologies have stood the test of time and they have proved to be paramount tools for affecting change in the society. Utopia is a Greek word which refers to no place. Since inception by Thomas MoreRead MoreTotalitarian Governments in 1984 by George Orwell1578 Words   |  7 PagesYears from Now Picture a world where a small group of people knows exactly what people are doing and when they are doing it, and if one makes one wrong move they are erased off of the face of the planet. This is what it is like to live in George Orwell’s 1984. Orwell tells a story about what he thought the world would be like in forty years. He predicted the world to be a world of totalitarian rule in which there are only three super countries. One of those countries was called Oceania, where the mainRead MoreSurveillance in America1325 Words   |  6 PagesOrwell had a vision of a dystopia that had no freedom. His main goal was to picture â€Å"what might society be like when his son is his age, if the injustice and suffering he had witnessed during WWII continued unchecked† (Agathocleous 7)? He was concerned for the welfare of his son. Wanting to make sure his son would grow up and not worry about things that he is given from birth. Orwell accuracy in his notions So, when asked ab out his dystopia Orwell’s only response was â€Å"a dark terrifying vision of

Novel The Europeans Essay Example For Students

Novel The Europeans Essay In his novel The Europeans, Henry James tells the story of an American family that is visited by their European cousins. James uses these circumstances to depict the differences between Europeans and Americans, and contrasts the provincial American life and the sophisticated Europeans life style. Through this critique of the American life, James also explores the connection between culture and art. The characters of Eugenia, Mr Acton, and Mr Wentworth, are used to provide a clear contrast between their different views about art because of their cultures. Mr Acton and Eugenia seem to appreciate art since they represent the complex characters, while Mr Wentworth does not see any value for art. James uses significant characters to highlight the connection between culture and art. The character of Eugenia is used by Henry James to express a critique of the simplicity of the Americans and also she is used to contrast between her as a European and some of the other less complicated characters. One way Eugenias character does this is through her love of art and her complexity of lifestyle and character. Eugenias character is what gives her her power not her looks, and this puts Eugenia in a different perspective than other women. She is introduced to the reader as an actress her art is the art of social intercourse, Shes a picture out of her own setting. This depiction of Eugenia is meant to provide a contrast between her character and manner and other characters in the novel like charlotte that is very stringent and conforms to the social norms of that society. She is seen as a highly complex character compared to her American cousins, when Eugenia goes to her new house she doesnt leave it plain, she decorated it with scrupulous draperies which charlotte was inclined to help Eugenia put away, her love of ornaments around the house shows her love for art and culture. It is also an example of how culture affects Eugenias perception of art and beauty. Eugenias complex character, provides a mean to contrast the culture and arts of the Europeans and the Americans Mr Wentworth character is a reflection of the way the Americans lived at the time. Mr Wentworth was the unfurnished condition of the lack of sophistication that is inherit in the Puritan way of life. Mr Wentworths does not have an appreciation for art; he believes that sitting for ones portrait is a form of idleness. These views are a reflection of the conservative life style and a reflection of the culture of the Americans. Another example of his views on art is as follows The lord made I dont think it is for man to make it over again, he doesnt view art in the same way as Felix or Mr Acton, because of the cultural difference between them. As a result of the strict life the Mr Wentworth has upheld, he doesnt have an appreciation for art the simple puritan culture that Mr Wentworth seems to have, influences the way he views and appreciates pieces of art. Mr Acton is another complex character that provides a contrast between the provincial American and European cultures and arts. Mr Acton is a cousin of the Wentworths family and also lives in America, however there are clear differences between himself and his American neighbours. Mr Acton is introduced by the reader as a man of power and complexity, his travels to the east, and to places outside America, has made him a richer and sophisticated character. He was very fond of books, and he had a handsome library this description of Mr Acton is to highlight his higher level of complexity; he also has an ornamented house that Eugenia finds la main heureuse. Mr Acton had an appreciation for art He was also very fond of pictures, unlike his fellow kinsmen Mr Wentworth, and the other characters, which is why he is a possible suitor for Eugenia. .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a , .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .postImageUrl , .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a , .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:hover , .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:visited , .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:active { border:0!important; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:active , .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5bc48ac9de0e99015886b46ff490cc8a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Authors Create Tension and Suspense EssayThis goes to show that the culture of the individual, influences the way they appreciate artwork, and helps in defining their views of it. In the novel The Europeans, characters that have been around the world, and do not have the American culture, have higher levels of complexity and have multi layered and rich characters. The more sophisticated characters also have an appreciation of art that the provincial Americans do not. Eugenia is seen to appreciate art, and is herself an artist of a different type; she is an artist in her manner and the way she presented herself. Mr Acton is an American, however he has travelled the world, he has an appreciation for art like literature, and pictures. His experiences from around the world give Mr Acton this view on art; his culture influences his views of art. Mr Wentworth is an example of a puritan American, his culture lacks the complexities that the Europeans have, his simple culture makes him less appreciative of art. The different views that the characters have of art and the extent they appreciate it is a reflection of their culture and the richness of it.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Specialisation Essays - Geology, Science, Young Earth Creationism

Specialisation Specialisation can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units,one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialisation was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity. No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word amateur does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialisation in the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United Kingdom. A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way. Although the process of professionalisation and specialisation was already well under way in British geology during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of science.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Dressing Up Case Essay Example

Dressing Up Case Essay Example Dressing Up Case Essay Dressing Up Case Essay Kohls has several external areas and trends that their strategic managers have to face every day. First, and possibly the most obvious, is their existing competitors. Kohls has to deal with J. C. Penny, Target, Sears, Macys and Wall-Mart as their competition. Theyve most recently had to keep up with Target and J. C. Pennys trends of the cheap chic look when Kohls released their Marc Anthony and Jennifer Lopez product lines. Demographic is the next external area. Kohls target customers are young mothers. That being said, the largest generation of young people since the mores, Generation Y, consists of young mothers. This single external area helped determine their location since they believed their target customer didnt have the time for a long drive to a mall location and dealing with parking hassles. 2. If I was a strategic decision maker at the headquarters of Kohls, I would primarily want to know the general environment sectors: Economic, Demographic, Calculators, Political-Legal, and Technological. These would be important to me because they are more big picture areas than that of the specific environment. If I was a local store anger for Kohls, I would want information from the specific environment: Consumers, Possible Competitors, and Resource Providers. This is because local management has direct contact with the customers and suppliers sales representatives. 3. Kohls is recognizing the trend of convenience and is making Kohls shopping experience with technological ease. Kohls. Com has let customers view their products online and even view an expanded selection of merchandise. Kohls have allowed for a customer to order a product online and return it in the store instead of going through the hassle of returning it through the mail. Kohls has also provided kiosks so that a customer may order something in the store and have it shipped to their home for free. The company is building up the infrastructure which will allow the stores to ship online orders from their stores, rather than their E- Commerce fulfillment centers. During the 2012 holiday season, Kohls shipped selected online orders from their retail distribution centers. By the 2013 holiday season, they expect to ship from 200 of their stores. These changes will allow them to reduce their shipping times and costs. 4. The opportunities I see in this case would be their strategy on location. Kohls target customer, young mothers, creates an opportunity for Kohls due to Generation Y being the largest generation since the baby boomers. Since they considered their target customers in deciding where to place its stores, this created an opportunity for when the women in the largest generation start becoming mothers. The threats would be J. C. Pennys new CEO launching new strategies. Kohls will have to keep up with the new strategies, and new everyday low prices that J. C. Penny is implementing. Dressing Up Case Study By valetudinarians

Saturday, February 29, 2020

An Introduction To DNA

An Introduction To DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of eve living organisms including some viruses. It is a dimer consists of two strands that immerse upon each other and appear as a double helix that are linked together covalently with each other. Each strand is made up of similar repeating units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide composed of three different moieties,a 2-deoxyribose sugar,a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. 1.1.1 2-Deoxyribose sugar The 2-deoxyribose sugar, a major structural component of DNA is a cyclic molecule .The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings.The 5†² carbon of deoxyribose sugar is attached to the 3†² carbon of the next, and make a network of 3†² carbon and 5†² carbon.5’end of a DNA molecule is characterized by a free phosphate (P) group and the 3†² end is characterized by a free hydroxyl (OH) group. It lacks an hyd roxyl group at the 2 position as in a ribose therefore a sugar moiety is a 2-deoxyribose. Two free hydroxyl groups are also located on the 5 carbon and 3-carbon of 2-deoxyribose sugar.These hydroxyl groups give a DNA oligomer its designation of 5 and the 3 end(usually accent as â€Å"three prime end† and â€Å"five prime end†). 1.1.2 Sugar-Phosphate backbone The 2-deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group forms the backbone in the DNA which are highly polar and defines directionality of the molecule. The polar hydrophilic back- bone is surrounded by a core of hydrophobic bases and is important for the stability and structure of DNA. The phosphate groups have a negative charge that gives a concentra- tion of negative charge on the backbone of DNA and also makes DNA,a negatively charge 5 1 Fundamentals molecule. The charge is also neutralised by DNA-binding proteins that contain the pos- itively charged amino acids lysine and arginine, which are attracted to the negatively charged phosphate backbone. See Fig. 1.1. Figure 1.1: DNA backbone 1.1.3 Nucleic acid bases DNA contain four different nitrogenous bases that make monomer of one nucleotide different from other. These bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and gua- nine(G). The bases come in two categories pyrimidines and purines. Larger nucleic acids adenine and guanine are members of a class of doubly ringed structures called purines while the smaller nucleic acids cytosine and thymine are members of a class of singly- ringed chemical structures called pyrimidines .A six-membered ring with two-nitrogen molecule formed a pyrimidine structure whereas purine is produced by a nine-membered, ring with four- nitrogen molecule. Each unit of the ring constructing the base is numbered to for specific identification. They are arranged in a particular order along the backbone of DNA to make a long chain of varying sequence that contains the code for proteins.The sequence specifies the exact genet ic instructions required to create a particular organism with its own unique traits. 6 1 Fundamentals 1.1.4 Base Pairing in DNA The nitrogenous bases are responsible to form double-strand of DNA in consequence of weak hydrogen bonds and have specific shapes and hydrogen bond properties. The three hydrogen bonds form between guanine and cytosine and then denoted as G.C or C.G,depending on which is associated with the first strand. Similarly adenine and thymine also bond exclusively by pairing of two hydrogen bonds and then denoted as A.T or T.A. This coupling up of nitrogen bases termed as complementarity.,A hydrogen bond donor need an equivalent hydrogen bond acceptor to form a hydrogen bond in the base across from it. Purines are only complementary with pyrimidines because molecules in pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairings are very far from each other that doesn’t makes the hydrogen bonding to be established. Purine-purine pairing are energetically unfavourable because the molecule s are too close and create an electrostatic repulsion. The only possible pairings are GT and AC. Primary and secondary amine groups or hydroxyl groups are common hydrogen bond donar while carbonyl and tertiary amines are common hydrogen bond acceptor groups. There are two hydrogen bonds between an A:T base pair. One hydrogen bond lie between the 6†² primary amine of adenine and the 4†² carbonyl of thymine. The other hydrogen bond form between the 1†² tertiary amine of adenine and the 2†² secondary amine of thymine. On the other hand,G:C base pair has three hydrogen bonds. One hydrogen bond lie between guanine with its 6†² hydrogen bond accepting carbonyl and cytosine having 4†² hydrogen bond accepting primary amine. The second hydrogen bond also formed between guanine on 1†² secondary amine and cytosine 3†² tertiary amine and the third formed between the 2†² primary amine on guanine and the 2†² carbonyl on cytosine.